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# Nonstandard Valve (Angular, 3-way, 4-way, Valve with Actuator) Modelling for Pipe Stress Analysis

Non-standard valves are inevitable in piping Industry. We can list down a number of them. They are Angular Valves, Three-Way valves, Four-way valves, valves with heavy Actuators and so on.Here we will discuss how to model this in START PROF.

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### 2. Unequal Legs Angular valve

The Former one have equal leg length. It can be modelled using a normal valve element by putting it into a node between two pipes so we can see one half of valve length will be placed through the first pipe direction and one half through another.These kind of angular valve is a solution for pipes with different diameter.

Unequal Legs Angular Valve have unequal leg lengths. It can be modelled using rigid elements so that the total weight of rigid elements should be equal to the valve weight. To model temperature expansion the temperature and material should be specifically noted in a rigid element. To check leakage we can add flanges too in these.

### Three-Way Valve

Three rigid elements should be used to model this.The valve weight and total weight of the rigid elements should be equal.

### Four-Way Valve

The four-way valve can be modeled using 4 rigid elements in the START-PROF. Here also the total weight of rigid elements should be equal to the valve weight.

### Actuator Modeling

The heavy wheel or actuator can be modelled as node weight load at the actuator center of gravity. This mass should be connected to the valve using rigid elements with zero weight to consider eccentricity.

For seismic analysis of piping systems,proper modelling of actuator eccentricity is especially important because the eccentric mass will produce a great additional torsion and bending moments on the piping system.