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Cooling Tower for Chilled Water System

Chilled Water System

Chilled Water System technology is adopted in large scale HVAC solutions for transferring heat from higher load areas to a refrigeration system or condensing loop. Components of this cooling methods are:

  • Compressor

  • Heat absorption- evaporator

  • Refrigerant piping (for evaporative cooled or air-cooled system) or condenser water piping (for water-cooled system)

  • Heat rejection – radiator or cooling tower

In this blog we are going to discuss about cooling towers.


Cooling Tower

A large heat exchanger unit providing cooling water to remove heat from a coolant that has been used to cool machinery, process fluids or buildings is a cooling tower. To ensure a constant supply of water for cooling it is better to place a cooling towers near water bodies. Cooling towers are recirculating water systems used to remove heat from building air conditioning equipment and industrial processes. They require specialized maintenance to ensure safe, efficient, and reliable operation, including an effective water treatment program. By understanding how cooling tower systems function, facility owners and operators can operate and maintain their systems more effectively.

Cooling towers are typically used in large-scale cooling operations such as power generation, oil and gas refining, and thermal power stations. Depending on the required coolant temperature we can choose either chiller or cooling tower.


Cooling Tower Construction

A cooling tower is comprised of water pumps and a large basin. The pumps provide water for cooling while the basin collects and drains discharged water from the system. The basin is a large hyperboloid, cylindrical or rectangular structure made of plastic, composite, concrete or steel and contains the spray nozzles, cooling tower fill media, and other heat dispersion equipment. Although large cooling towers structures (over 200 ft in height and 100 meters in diameter) are common, there are smaller systems that can be installed at smaller sites and on top of buildings.


Operation

Evaporative Cooling: A small portion of cooling water evaporates when it meets with air and resulting in dropping temperature.

The key components of a cooling system are

  • Cooling tower

  • Recirculating pump

  • Heat exchanger

Cooling tower systems work by using water to extract waste heat from a system and ejecting it into the atmosphere primarily through evaporation.

Heated water from an industrial process can enter a heat exchanger or condenser and flow through the pipework into the cooling tower for heat removal, or flow directly through the tower. Spray nozzles inside the tower spray the water on a fill material whose larger surface area allows for maximum contact with air and increases the rate of evaporation. Cooling fans located within the tower aid the cooling process, and the drift eliminators remove the tiny droplets of water produced in the tower air stream during evaporation.

For small-scale applications such as chilling small rooms and exhausts of equipment, you can use a suitably sized air-cooled or water-cooled chiller and a portable cooling tower installed on the roof of your building. For large-scale cooling operations, combining the two systems might be a more cost-effective option than using them separately.


Evaporative heat-rejection devices such as cooling towers provide significantly lower water temperatures than those achievable with air cooled or dry heat rejection devices, thereby achieving a more cost-effective and energy-efficient cooling system. Cooling towers save a lot of water and energy versus air-cooled HVAC or process cooling systems. With the proper cooling system programs in place, building HVAC, cold storage, and industrial cooling systems can be optimized for the most efficient output while minimizing operating costs. Cooling towers require proper maintenance to ensure the most efficient operation and to reduce downtime.


Challenges

  • Water conservation

  • Corrosion

  • Scale

  • Deposits

  • Microbiological activity

These issues can cause water equipment failure leading to production downtime, added costs, and reduced efficiency. Professional water treatment minimizes these challenges by expert support, focused optimization, and industry best practices.




Universal Engineering Services has more than a decades experience in the pressure vessel design for clients in UAE, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and many more countries all over the world. UES work to many ASME standards to design and validate pressure vessels, boiler, fittings and piping systems. We are also experts in Stress analysis of piping, structural design, ASME Joint review, Design of Storage tanks, code calculations, FEA/FEM, and spotless service on design management.


**The content of this article is taken from web open source. The blogs are intended only to give technical knowledge to young engineers. Any engineering calculators, technical equations, and write-ups are only for reference and educational purposes.

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